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Smith, Amanda
An autobiograpy



Emigrants going to Liberia think they can rent a small house, or rooms, as they can in this country. People will come there, who have left a comfortable home behind, and think they will rent a small house for six months or a year, till they can get their own house built; but this they can seldom do. The reason of this, I think is, the climate is very hard on timber, and a house standing unoccupied for any length of time will soon be destroyed.

The bug-a-bug is a very large ant, which eats the wood to a perfect hull, and the most destructive insect in that regard in the country. If they get into a trunk or chest of clothes, and are not discovered in time, they will go through everything, books, papers, etc.; nothing stands before them. After you know this, a little watching may save you a great deal of trouble.

So that the most of the people in Liberia, or anywhere else in the republic, build, and live in their own houses. Houses that are built of stone or brick are the most durable; and the best houses there are thus built. But the frame houses have the hardest time.

Slate roofing, in one sense, would be better than shingles, especially for the rainy season, for the reason that the rain and sun do not affect it so much as they do the shingles.

During the rainy season there, it literally pours. I have often thought of Noah in the ark when I have seen the rain pour down without mercy for two or three days in succession, with just a little intervals of a slight break between. Then the sun would come out, sometimes for a half day, perhaps in the morning or

afternoon, then it would rain at night; but these little intervals help the people to get about and do their work. Nobody seems to stop especially. After you have been here awhile you do not seem to mind it. It is rather comfortable, for it is not so warm then, and you can stand a good little fire in the house to absorb the dampness.

As a rule there is a good deal of sickness and fever among the natives during this season; but people having comfortable houses suffer but very little inconvenience.

When the rainy season is over, and the blazing, hot sun beats down, the shingles curl right up and split, so that almost every year it is necessary to go through some repairing. On the other hand, the slate roof gets so hot that it makes sleeping almost impossible, unless the roof is high, and well lined under the slate.

There are some large houses, for stores; these are occupied by white merchants, or traders, so that if there chance to be a good house of any size to rent, they generally have the preference, for they always have the money, and that is the first consideration in Africa as well as elsewhere.

Now, in this regard Sierra Leone is different. There are almost always good houses to rent there; they build houses for that purpose. And so if you want a house with a store underneath, or a large private house, or one not so large, it can be got at a reasonable price, as a rule, and on a good, wide street.

The Sierra Leone houses are very substantially built, but generally of stone or brick, with yards enclosed by a good, high wall, after the English style, and nicely furnished inside. I have seen some as finely finished houses in Sierra Leone and Lagos as I have seen in America or England.

The people of Sierra Leone are greatly mixed, as to tribes; so much so, that I think it would be difficult to tell to just what particular tribe they really belong.

They have no real, distinct language. They speak a lingo of broken English, which all seem to understand; and when two or three dozen of them are together, especially the women and girls in the market places, it would remind one unaccustomed to it of the chattering of a thousand swallows. My! but they can talk. But there are hundreds who speak good English.

There are many wealthy merchants, both in Sierra Leone and Lagos, who often send their sons and daughters to England, and

sometimes to France, to be educated. But somehow they never seem to lose this peculiar Sierra Leone idiom; so that they are just as distinct in their customs and manners of speech from Liberians and Americans, as Italians are different from Americans in this country; so they do not assimilate easily. They intermarry occasionally, but not often; and when they do, they seldom get on well together, their training and education are so entirely different.

But the country is no better off for this education. Of course they don't come home to do missionary work among the people; they belong to the upper rank; and so those of the same rank are a society among themselves; and the second and third classes of their own people are never the better for their higher education, only as they may serve them, as servants, or otherwise.

If it is a lady she is either engaged, before she comes home, to be married to some rich gentleman, or very soon after she gets home you may hear that she has had an offer; sometimes there will be rival suitors for her hand, and you will wait with the greatest interest, for you are sure to hear of it, which of these has won the suit. As much of this depends on the weight of their pockets as anything else.

And then, when one of these weddings comes off, it will give you a little idea of what real black aristocracy is. It would compare favorably with the same kind of an event of Fifth Avenue, New York, or in Washington, D. C. Fine cards and wedding presents, and all the outfit for four or five bridesmaids, as well as bride and groom, and best man, etc., etc., all imported from England and France. These people are not ignorant in regard to the highest style, and the greatest etiquette.

As a rule, I think the Sierra Leone people are generally industrious; there are merchants, tailors, carpenters, etc., among them. They have large markets where you can go and get, two or three times a week, all sorts of produce, at a good price. Then they have regular beef markets, from which they supply Government House, and the large barracks of English soldiers.

They are great traders, men, women, boys and girls; the women often surpass the men. They will go up and down the rivers, and in the interior, buying palm oil, rubber, camwood, and boys and girls, if necessary. I was told they do this sometimes, but for the purpose of setting them free, as the English law

Baptist Mission Station, Liberia .
does not allow anyone to own slaves, when it is really known. Thank God for that.

Formerly they had good schools in Freetown. This is one thing I admire in the English government; she generally looks well after the education of her colonists. Of course there is room for much improvement, even in Sierra Leone and Lagos.

All up and down the coast, wherever you go where the English flag waves, and there has been any civilization at all, you will find scores and hundreds who have a liberal education, and are fitted for most all professions and callings.

The Wesleyan Girls' High School, at Freetown, was once a beautiful building, with well furnished dormitories, and a staff of first-class teachers; but it has seen its best days, without a great change takes place. For several years it has been sadly declining in power and influence, being almost entirely under the control of one or two parties. I was told that when it was first founded, it was under the management of white people; the lady principal and teachers were all white, and they did a grand work. And then the boys' high school, which I also visited, and had the privilege, through the invitation of the principal, Mr. M., of addressing, was not what it once was, or should be. The Episcopal school, both for girls and boys, is good. The boys have a fine, large, commodious building, and a good staff of teachers.

Several of the Liberian families, who have not been able to send their sons and daughters as far as England to be educated, sent them to Freetown. I had the pleasure of going all through this building, on the day of the dedication of the new dormitory and recitations rooms, which had been added to the main building, accommodating, I think, probably two hundred in all. His lordship, the Bishop, was in the chair, and gave a most excellent address, as did also Mr. N., who, I think, at that time had charge of the theological department, and who was a noble, Christian gentleman. His sister was the lady principal of the girls' high school, which I also visited, and had the pleasure of speaking a few words to the young ladies. Everything was in good order.

I was greatly delighted with this school, especially the housekeeping department, where, in connection with their studies, each girl took her turn in the sweeping, dusting, making bread, biscuit, pie, or cake, and in washing dishes and attending the dining room. This, it seemed to me, was the most essential of all; it would certainly

be one of the "one needful things." For if, having the intellectual qualifications, the girls in Africa are remiss in this, the former is as good as lost, to a great extent, as their homes would not be what they might be otherwise.

Then, there are private schools. I visited a Mr. Leapol's school, which was a very nice school for boys. I suppose he accommodated about forty. Mr. L. was a very high type of a Christian gentleman; I think, a West Indian by birth. This school was of the higher grade. Teachers and helpers, I believe, were all colored.

There was a good government school, which, according to my American ideas, should have continued to exist. But when the new Bishop came, he, being a very conservative English gentleman, and invested with power, thought it best, as I was told, to disband the government school, and build a large parish school. So that many of the poor children, who were not able to pay, were shut out. This opened a good harvest for the Roman Catholics, which they lost no time in securing.

I am often asked if I think that missionary work in Africa prospers and develops better when under the entire control of colored people, or do I think it is better under the control of white people.

To answer this as best I can I will give my experience and observation at the several places I have been.

The schools at Old Calabar under the Scotch Presbyterian Missionary Society, and the schools and missions at Lagos, and the Episcopal, Baptist and Wesleyan Schools in the Republic of Liberia, and then in Sierra Leone the United Free Methodists, the Episcopals, the Lady Huntington Society, the U.B. Mission, and the English Baptist Mission, all were established, supported and superintended by white missionaries; but just in proportion as they have died, or on account of poor health have had to retire from the work, the schools and mission property have declined.

Many of them in the work have developed good native teachers and preachers, who are loyal, and faithful, and true; and the white missionary feels that he, or she, could not do without these native helpers. But when the whole work is left to them the interest seems to flag, and the natives themselves seem to lose their interest, which the teacher feels, but cannot help.

I do not attempt to make any explanation of this; I simply

Boys of Mission School, Rotifunk, Africa .
state the facts as I met them. And as I mingled with the people, old and young, and as the older people, who knew more about it, would tell me what it had been in former years, the remains of which were left, in the mission house and grounds, it was not difficult to see the difference.

Then, the white missionaries, as a rule, give better satisfaction, both to the natives and to the church or society which sends them out.

I suppose no church or society ever gave a salary to a colored man, no matter how efficient he was, as large as they give to a white man or woman, no matter how inefficient he or she may be in the start; and I think they are generally expected to do more work. This I think is a great mistake.

I believe that the death of the grandest black missionary I ever knew, Rev. Joseph Gomer, of the Shanghai Mission, was hastened through over-work and pressing need, and salary and means for work being cut down, and great anxiety because of the urgent demand for the work.

For pure Christian integrity, and untarnished moral character, and fatherly sympathy and love for the poor heathen, he had but few equals in Africa, if any.

"Then you think, Mrs. Smith, it is better that white missionaries should go to Africa."

Yes, if they are the right kind. If they are thoroughly converted and fully consecrated and wholly sanctified to God, so that all their prejudices are completely killed out, and their hearts are full of love and sympathy, and they have firmness of character, and good, broad, level-headed common sense, and are possessed of great patience, and strong, persistent, persevering faith, and then keep up the spirit of earnest prayer to Almighty God, day and night. I do not say that it is necessary to be under a dead strain all the time; not at all; but my own personal experience is that the more one prays and trusts in God, the better he can get on, especially in Africa.

Everything is so different from what you have it at home, that this is an absolute necessity; and the person that has not got the stick-to-itiveness on these lines, especially, whatever else he may have, will not make a good missionary in Africa, whether he be white or black.

I have known some white missionaries who have gone to

Africa, who were just as full of prejudice against black people as they are in this country, and did not have grace enough to hide it; but they seemed to think they were in Africa, and there was no society that they cared for, and that the black people had but little sense, so they would never know if they did act mean and do mean things.

And I have known some who have done disreputable things, and it has had its effect on the motives and principles of the good missionaries, until they have had time enough patiently to live it down, and have proved to the Liberians and natives that there is a difference, even in white missionaries.

But thank God. He has sent some who have fully answered to what I have said before. There are one or two who come to my mind now, who, I believe, in every particular fill the bill. I refer to Miss Lizzie McNeil, who, it seems to me, is a born missionary, and to Miss Whitfield. There are numbers of others; but I speak of these because I know them personally, and know their work.

I remember the first party of Bishop Taylor's missionaries that came to Cape Palmas while I was there. The steamer got in on Saturday afternoon; six of the men came ashore Saturday evening; the others, with their families, remained till morning, and they all got ashore in time for church Sunday morning.

Dear Brother Harnard preached a grand sermon. He was the leader, or bishop, of the party. They were all so full of hope and cheer. How bright and happy they all seemed to be. Brother Harnard had two beautiful children, about two and four years of age, I suppose; and the people, natives and all, were so delighted with them. Some of them have never seen white children so young; and then they were so beautifully trained; and Brother and Sister Harnard were so good and kind to every one.

Brother Pratt, Bishop Taylor's agent in Cape Palmas, whatever he may be now, was certainly the best man that Bishop Taylor could have got anywhere to fill the position, at the time. Oh, how faithfully that man worked. How he sacrificed his home, and everything for the work. His poor wife was sick all the time; suffered