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     Wagner: DER RING DES NIBELUNGEN    Table of Contents      Wagner: SIEGFRIED

The Mapleson Cylinders - Program Notes

- Libretti
- Wagner: DIE WALKÜRE [Includes RealAudio Selections]


Wagner: DIE WALKÜRE [ Click for RealAudio Selections ]

As the most popular opera from the Ring cycle, Die Walküre has always received many performances outside the cycle. During the seasons we are concerned with, it was played, respectively, three, two, and one times outside of complete cycles.

Only a few of Mapleson's Walküre cylinders are firmly documented; in the absence of sufficient direct evidence, it has been necessary to rely on the recording speeds to arrive at plausible (if still tentative) ascriptions--and to offer alternate hypotheses at a point where the evidence conflicts (two overlapping cylinders from the "Ride of the Valkyries" apparently from the same performance). It may clarify the subsequent discussion to note that in the opera's three 1903 performances, most of the relevant principal singers (and, fortunately, all nine Valkyries) were the same: Nordica as Brünnhilde, Gadski as Sieglinde, Schumann-Heink as Fricka; on January 16, Van Rooy sang Wotan, on February 12 and 21, David Bispham (contrary to the original edition of Metropolitan Opera Annals, Bispham sang on February 12, not Van Rooy.)

raster Band 3   [Click to Listen]

Act II: Brünnhilde's Battle Cry excerpt : "[Hojotoho! hojotoho! heia]ha!" ... "hojoho!"

Lillian Nordica (s), Brünnhilde

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--Alfred Hertz

February 21, 1903

[Slip: "Feb. 22, 1903"--presumably a scribal error, copied by Glackens 68, which describes the cylinder accurately. The speed matches Band 8, correctly dated by Glackens on February 21 (and does not match Band 9, the only cylinder documented for February 12, the other plausible emendation of the error).

[Begin Page 58]

Band 4

Act II: Brünnhilde's Battle Cry and Wotan-Fricka scene excerpts :

(a) "[Hojotoho!] hojotoho! heiaha!" ... "hojoho!"

(b) "lieb ich auch muthiger Männer Schlacht" ... "heiaha ha!"

(c) "[soll süsse Lust] deinen Segen dir lohnen" ... "So ist es denn aus"

Lillian Nordica (s), Brünnhilde

Ernestine Schumann-Heink (a), Fricka

Anton Van Rooy (b), Wotan

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--Alfred Hertz

January 16, 1903 (?)

[For this and the cylinder in Band 7, recorded at the same speed, there is no direct evidence for dating or ascription. Since the Brünnhilde in this band (as in Band 3) seems clearly to be Nordica, who didn't sing the opera in 1902, and since 1901 seems too early on the basis of sound quality, 1903 is indicated. Because of the overlap with Band 3, February 21 is ruled out in any case--and the Wotan sounds more like Van Rooy than like Bispham.]

Wotan has summoned his favorite daughter, the Valkyrie Brünnhilde, and ordered her to protect Siegmund in his forthcoming combat with Hunding. She sings the Valkyries' battle cry. The cylinder in Band 3 contains only the first stanza of this. The exceptionally fragmentary cylinder in Band 4 begins by duplicating that passage; it then skips to the later part of Brünnhilde's humorous warning to Wotan of Fricka's impending arrival and her reprise of the battle cry (marred by some groove skips), after which it jumps to one of the chords that accompany Fricka's arrival (this follows the battle cry directly), and concludes with a few lines from Wotan's confrontation with Fricka, breaking off just as Schumann-Heink is launching into the most famous tirade in the scene.

[original]

BRÜNNHILDE

Hojotoho! [ Band 4(a) begins→ ] Hojotoho!
Heia [ Band 3 begins→ ] ha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Hojoho! [ ←Band 3 and Band 4(a) end ]
(4b)
[In solchem Strausse
streit ich nicht gern,]
lieb ich auch mutiger
Männer Schlacht.
Drum sieh, wie den Sturm du bestehst;
ich Lustige lass dich im Stich!
Hojotoho! [Hojotoho!
Heia]ha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! [Heiaha!]
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Hojoho!

WOTAN
(4c)
[Dass jene sich lieben,
leuchtet dir hell;
drum höre redlichen Rat:
Soll süsse Lust]
deinen Segen dir lohnen,
so segne, lachend der Liebe,
Siegmunds und Sieglindes Bund!

FRICKA
So ist es denn aus
[mit den ewigen Göttern...]

[translation]

BRÜNNHILDE

Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Hojoho!
In such struggles
I don't like to fight,
I much prefer heroic
battles of men.
Then see that you survive the storm;
I cheerfully leave you in the lurch!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Hojoho!

WOTAN
That they love each other,
that is clear to you;
then hear good advice:
if sweet passion
should deserve your blessing,
then smiling bless the love
that binds Siegmund and Sieglinde!

FRICKA
So this is the end
of the eternal Gods...

Band 5

Act III: Ride of the Valkyries excerpt : "[Ho]jotoho!" ... "Sind die And'ren schon da? Hojotoho! Hojotoho!"

Marie Van Cauteren (s), Gerhilde

Mathilde Bauermeister (s), Ortlinde

Camille Seygard (s), Helmwige

Marie Maurer (s), Grimgerde

Marguerite Marilly (s), Siegrune

Carrie Bridewell (ms), Rossweisse

Ernestine Schumann-Heink (a), Waltraute

Louise Homer (a), Schwertleite

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--Alfred Hertz

February 21, 1903 (?)

This cylinder is found in a plain container dated "Feb. 21, 1903," but it overlaps with the undocumented Band 6, which on the basis of recording speed can be grouped with Bands 3 and 8, firmly documented for the same date. (It also overlaps with Band 7, which we ascribe to January 16, 1903.) Two hypotheses are possible to resolve the conflict: (1) this cylinder is in the wrong container, and actually stems from February 12, 1903, or from an earlier season; (2) the fact that Band 6 matches the speed of the other February 21 cylinders is coincidental, and it actually was recorded on February 12 or in an earlier season. Neither Band 5 or Band 6 matches the speed of Band 9, certainly recorded on February 12, so that doesn't help. In favor of the first hypothesis, one can note that this is one of the two cylinders Mapleson gave Seltsam at their first meeting, and, like the other one (the Queen's aria from Huguenots), it might have strayed from its proper container into another one. (This leaves a loose end, however: what was originally in the container dated "Feb. 21, 1903"? If it was Band 6--or the Ernani cylinder from the same date that doesn't have a marked container--the exchange must have taken place before the cylinders left Mapleson's hands, as both Band 6 and that Ernani cylinder belong to the Favia-Artsay group of cylinders, not the Seltsam collection.) In favor of the second hypothesis: the speed of Band 5 is quite close to that of the other February 21 cylinders; the sound of Band 6 is markedly fainter than the other two "Ride" recordings, and it thus might plausibly be relegated to 1902. With some diffidence, we adopt the second hypothesis.

Band 6

Act III: Ride of the Valkyries excerpt : "[Die Stute stösst mir der] Hengst!" ... "Heiaha! Heiaha! [In Wald mit den Rossen]"

Marie Van Cauteren (s), Gerhilde

Mathilde Bauermeister (s), Ortlinde

Camille Seygard (s), Helmwige

Marie Maurer (s), Grimgerde

Marguerite Marilly (s), Siegrune

Carrie Bridewell (ms), Rossweisse

Ernestine Schumann-Heink (a), Waltraute

[Begin Page 59]

Louise Homer (a), Schwertleite

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--Alfred Hertz

February 12, 1903 (?)

[See discussion of Band 5 above. If this cylinder was recorded in 1902, the conductor would be Damrosch, and the following cast changes would be involved: on January 13, Scheff (Helmwige), Seygard (Grimgerde); on February 11, Maurer (Schwertleite), Isabelle Bouton (Grimgerde); on February 27 (matinee), Maurer (Grimgerde).]

Band 7

Act III: Ride of the Valkyries excerpt : "Hojotoho!" ... "Ha ha ha ha ha ha ha [ha ha ha!]"

Marie Van Cauteren (s), Gerhilde

Mathilde Bauermeister (s), Ortlinde

Camille Seygard (s), Helmwige

Marie Maurer (s), Grimgerde

Marguerite Marilly (s), Siegrune

Carrie Bridewell (ms), Rossweisse

Ernestine Schumann-Heink (a), Waltraute

Louise Homer (a), Schwertleite

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--Alfred Hertz

January 16, 1903 (?)

[Speed matches Band 4, q.v. ]

These three overlapping cylinders present most of the opening scene of Act III, as Brünnhilde's eight Valkyrie sisters gather at the rock where they rendezvous with the dead warriors they have brought from the world's battlefields, now recruited to garrison Valhalla.

[original]

HELMWIGE'S VOICE

Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Ho[ Band 5 begins→ ] jotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! ( Lightning illuminates a Valkyrie riding through the clouds. )

GERHILDE, WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Heiaha! Heiaha!

ORTLINDE
Zu Ortlindes Stute
stell deinen Hengst:
mit meiner Grauen
grast gern dien Brauner!

WALTRAUTE ( calling into the wood )
Werhängt dir im Sattel?

HELMWIGE ( coming from the wood )
Sintolt, der Hegeling!

SCHWERTLEITE
Führ deinen Braunen
fort von der Grauen:
Ortlinde's Mähre
tragt Wittig, den Irming!

GERHILDE
Als Feinde nur sah ich
Sintolt und Wittig!

ORTLINDE
Heiaha! Die Stute
stösst mir der [ Band 6 begins→ ] Hengst!

GERHILDE, HELMWIGE, SCHWERTLEITE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

GERHILDE
Der Recken Zwist
entzweit noch die Rosse!

HELMWIGE
Ruhig, Brauner!
Brich nicht den Frieden.

WALTRAUTE ( calls the background )
Hoioho! Hoioho!
Siegrune, hier!
Wo säumst du so lang?

SEGRUNE ( from the background )
Arbeit gab's!
Sind die And'ren schon da?

SCHWERTLEITE
Hojotoho!

WALTRAUTE
[ Band 7 begins→ ]
Hojotoho! [ ←Band 5 ends ]

GERHILDE
Heiaha!

WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Heiaha!

GRIMGERDE'S VOICE
Hojotoho!

GRIMGERDE'S VOICE, ROSSWEISSE'S VOICE
Heiaha!

WALTRAUTE
Grimgerd und Rossweisse!

GERHILDE
Sie reiten zu zwei.

HELMWIGE ORLINDE, SIEGRUNE
Gegrüsst, ihr Reisige!
Rossweiss und Grimgerde!

ROSSWEISSE'S VOICE GRIMGERDE'S VOICE
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha!

HELMWIGE, ORTLINDE, GERHILDE, WALTRAUTE, SIEGRUNE, SCHWERTLEITE
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! [ ←Band 6 ends ]

GERHILDE ( calling into the wood )
In' Wald mit den Rossen
zu Rast und Weid'!

ORTLINDE ( also calling into the wood )
Führet die Mähren
fern voneinander,
bis unsrer Helden
Hass sich gelegt!

WALTRAUTE. SCHWERTLEITE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

GERHILDE, SIEGRUNE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

HELMWIGE
Der Helden Grimm
büsste schon die Graue!

WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

HELMWIGE, GERHILDE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

HELMWIGE, GERHILDE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

ORTLINDE, SEIGRUNE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, [ ← Band 7 ends ] ha, ha, ha!

[translation]

HELMWIGE'S VOICE

Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha ( Lightning illuminates a Valkyrie riding through the clouds. )

GERHILDE, WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Heiaha! Heiaha!

ORTILNDE
Tie up your stallion
by Ortlinde's mare;
your brown will gladly
graze with my grey.

WALTRAUTE ( calling into the wood )
Who hangs from your saddle?

HELMWIGE ( coming from the wood )
Sintolt, the Hegeling!

SCHWERTLEITE
Then lead your brown
away from the grey:
Ortlinde's mare
carries Wittig, the Irming!

GERHILDE
Sintolt and Wittig
were always enemies!

ORTLINDE
Heiaha! Your stallion
is jostling my mare!

GERHILDE, HELMWIGE, SCHWERTLEITE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

GERHILDE
The heroes' quarrels
are now shared by the horses!

HELMWIGE
Easy, Brownie!
Don't disturb the peace.

WALTRAUTE ( calls the background )
Hoioho! Hoioho!
Siegrune, here!
Where have you tarried so long?

SEGRUNE ( from the background )
Work to do!
Are the others yet there?

SCHWERTLEITE
Hojotoho!

WALTRAUTE
Hojotoho!

GERHILDE
Heiaha!

WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Heiaha!

GRIMGERDE'S VOICE
Hojotoho!

GRIMGERDE'S VOICE, ROSSWEISSE'S VOICE
Heiaha!

WALTRAUTE
Grimgerde and Rossweisse!

GERHILDE
They're riding together.

HELMWIGE ORLINDE, SIEGRUNE
Greetings, travelers!
Rossweisse and Grimgerde!

ROSSWEISSE'S VOICE GRIMGERDE'S VOICE
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha!

HELMWIGE, ORTLINDE, GERHILDE, WALTRAUTE, SIEGRUNE, SCHWERTLEITE
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha!

GERHILDE ( calling into the wood )
Put your horses in the wood,
to rest and graze!

ORTLINDE ( also calling into the wood )
Keep the mares
far from each other
until our heroes'
hate is calmed!

WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

GERHILDE, SIEGRUNE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

HELMWIGE
For the heroes' anger,
the grey has atened!

WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

HELMWIGE, GERHILDE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

WALTRAUTE, SCHWERTLEITE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

HELMWIGE, GERHILDE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

ORTLINDE, SEIGRUNE
Ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha, ha!

[Begin Page 60]

Band 8

Act III: Sieglinde's Farewell and Wotan's Entrance excerpt : "[O hehrstes] Wunder! Herrlichste Maid!" ... "Wo [ist Brünnhild; wo die Verbrecherin?]"

Lillian Nordica (s), Brünnhilde

Johanna Gadski (s), Sieglinde

David Bispham (b), Wotan

Marie Van Cauteren (s), Gerhilde

Mathilde Bauermeister (s), Ortlinde

Camille Seygard (s), Helmwige

Marie Maurer (s), Grimgerde

Marguerite Marilly (s), Siegrune

Carrie Bridewell (ms), Rossweisse

Ernestine Schumann-Heink (a), Waltraute

Louise Homer (a), Schwertleite

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--Alfred Hertz

February 21, 1903

[Glackens 2.]

When Brünnhilde finally arrives at the Valkyries' rock, her horse bears, not a warrior, but Sieglinde, sister of the dead Siegmund. When her sisters refuse to help Sieglinde flee Wotan's wrath, Brünnhilde sends the young woman in the direction of Fafner's cave, a part of the world that Wotan shuns, and tells her that in her womb she carries Siegmund's son, who will become the world's great hero. The revivified Sieglinde thanks her, and escapes as Wotan approaches.

[original]

SIEGLINDE

[O hehrstes] Wunder!
Herrlichste Maid!
Dir Treuen dank ich
heiligen Trost!
Fur ihn, den wir liebten,
rett ich das Liebste:
meines Dankes Lohn
lache dir einst!
Lebe wohl!
Dich segnet Sieglindes Weh! ( She hastens away to the wood. Black thunderclouds surround the height. )

WOTAN'S VOICE
Steh, Brünnhild'!

ORTLINDE, WALTRAUTE
Den Fels erreichen
Ross und Reiter!

THE EIGHT VALKYRIES
Weh, Brünnhild'!
Rache entbrennt!

BRÜNNHILDE
Ach, Schwestern, helft!
Mir schwankt das Herz!
Sein Zorn zerschellt mich,
wenn euer Schutz ihn nicht zahmt.

THE EIGHT VALKYRIES
Hieher, Verlorne!
Lass dich nicht sehn!
Schmiege dich an uns
und schweige dem Ruf! ( They hide Brünnhilde in their midst and look anxiously at the wood. )
Weh!
Wütend schwingt sich
Wotan vom Ross!
Hieher rast
sein rächender Schritt!

WOTAN ( entering in terrible wrath )
Wo [ist Brünnhild',
wo die Verbrecherin?]

[translation]

SIEGLINDE

O greatest miracle!
Most glorious maid!
I thank you for your
holiest comfort!
For him, whom we both loved,
I will save this treasure:
the gift of my thanks
will one day smile on you!
Farewell!
You are blessed by Sieglinde's woe! ( She hastens away to the wood. Black thunderclouds surround the height. )

WOTAN'S VOICE
Stay, Brünnhilde!

ORTLINDE, WALTRAUTE
Horse and rider
have reached the rock!

THE EIGHT VALKYRIES
Woe, Brünnhilde!
Vengeance is kindled!

BRÜNNHILDE
Ah, sisters, help me!
My heart is shaking!
His anger will shatter me
if your protection does not restrain him.

THE EIGHT VALKYRIES
Come here, lost one!
Don't let him see you!
Hide yourself among us
and be silent when he calls! ( They hide Brünnhilde in their midst and look anxiously at the wood. )
Woe!
Furiously Wotan
dismounts from his horse!
Hither he comes
with vengeful stride!

WOTAN ( entering in terrible wrath )
Where is Brünnhilde,
where is the offender?

Band 9

Act III: Wotan's Farewell excerpts :

(a) "Leb' wohl, du kühnes, herrliches Kind!" ... "mein Gruss dich mehr grüssen"

(b) "Denn Einer nur freie die Braut, der freier als ich, der Gott"

David Bispham (b), Wotan

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--Alfred Hertz

February 12, 1903

[Slip with date.]

Wotan must punish the disobedient Brünnhilde, and decrees that she is to be left sleeping on the rock. stripped of her divinity and at the mercy of whatever mortal may come along. But she has pleaded her cause so eloquently that Wotan agrees to surround her with a ring of fire, so that only the bravest of heroes can win her. He now bids her a passionate farewell; Mapleson recorded the beginning and end of its first portion.

[original]

WOTAN

(a)
Leb wohl, du kühnes,
herrliches Kind!
Du meines Herzens heiligster Stolz!
Leb wohl! Leb wohl! Leb wohl!
Muss ich dich meiden,
und darf nicht minnig
mein Gruss dich mehr grüssen...
(b)
Denn einer nur freie die Braut,
der freier als ich, der Gott!

[translation]

WOTAN

Farewell, you proud,
glorious daughter!
The holiest pride of my heart!
Farewell! Farewell! Farewell!
If I must shun you,
and may not ever again
greet you with love...
Then one alone will free the bride,
one freer than I, the god!

Band 10

Act III: Magic Fire Music excerpt : "durchschreite das Feuer nie"...almost to end of opera

Anton Van Rooy (b), Wotan

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--

Walter Damrosch

February 11 or February 27 (matinee). 1902

[Glackens 3: "Van Rooy probably...Feb. 1902." Van Rooy sang all three Wotans that season; these are the two February dates.]

Having summoned Loge to surround the rock with flames, Wotan reluctantly leaves his favorite daughter.

[original]
[Wer meines Speeres
Spitze furchtet.]
durchschreite das Feuer nie! ( He stretches out the spear as if casting a spell. Then he gazes sadly back at Brünnhilde, turns to depart, and looks back once more before disappearing through the flames. The curtain falls. )

[translation]
He who fears
the point of my spear
shall never pass through the fire! ( He stretches out the spear as if casting a spell. Then he gazes sadly back at Brünnhilde, turns to depart, and looks back once more before disappearing through the flames. The curtain falls. )

Band 11

Wagner: Kaisermarsch excerpts :

(a) from 2 measures after rehearsal number 7 to 5 measures after number 12

(b) from 2 measures before number 22 to the end of the piece

Metropolitan Opera Orchestra--Felix Mottl (?)

January 17, 1904 (?)

[The first of these two cylinders--obviously recorded over something else--is undocumented; the second is Glackens 18, the remainder of which is occupied by the Coppélia excerpt on Side 4/ Band 13. The Kaisermarsch was performed at several Sunday-night concerts during the Mapleson years. On January 4 and again on March 8 in 1903, Alfred Hertz conducted it, and the following year Felix Mottl played it on January 17. Because the Coppélia excerpt seems most likely to have been recorded in 1904, and because there is no firm evidence of Mapleson recording at Sunday-night concerts in 1903, the ascription to Mottl seems more probable. This would appear to be his only recording (aside from piano rolls).]

Dated March 15, 1871, the Kaisermarsch celebrates the Prussian victory over the French and the crowning of Wilhelm I as Emperor of Germany.

[Begin Page 61]

     Wagner: DER RING DES NIBELUNGEN    Table of Contents      Wagner: SIEGFRIED