Guide to the Research Collections
|SECTION -- III -- THE SOCIAL SCIENCES|
|36 -- GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS|
|RESOURCES IN GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS|
There are in actuality two collections of government publications in the Research Libraries. The first consists of administrative publications, legislative proceedings, sessional papers, government directories, etc. of various nations, states, and cities, and such general materials as are not easily classifiable by subject. This collection is classed as *S in the Billings Classification Schedule and is administered by the Economic and Public Affairs Division. Although current practice is to classify an increasingly large percentage of government publications elsewhere, this class mark covers some 350,000 volumes and remains important.
The second group of public documents includes census reports, patents, session laws, and other materials identified by subject, such as geological surveys, meteorological reports, etc. This group of over 700,000 volumes is located in the various divisions and collections of the library. In the following analysis of the public document resources of the library, reference will be made only to those portions of the *S class mark which are in active use at the time of this writing, and certain rarities primarily in the Rare Book, Division (*K class mark).
Bibliographical materials classed in *S consist only of publications originating from governmental agencies, and consequently do not include much material dealing with public documents but classed under subject. All Library of Congress bibliographical publications are included. Official records of material published, such as the Library of Congress Official Catalog of Publications and similar publications from other national agencies, form a second class of bibliographical tool. A third is catalogs of accessions of governmental agencies; notable examples are the catalogs of the Canadian Parliament from 1862 and the Danish Kongelige Bibliothek from 1901. This class of materials includes some accession records of the Library of Congress and the state libraries.
Only material about archives is included: dissertations, indexes, lists, etc. Typical of the latter are the Lists and Indexes of the British Public Record Office and the Press List of Ancient Documents of the India Record Department. Reprinted archives are classed with subject materials.
This is an exceptionally strong feature of the holdings; the importance of government newspapers in establishing the historical record of any country cannot be overestimated. The Gazettes Microfilming Project, started in 1956, continues.2 Unfortunately, gazettes are usually printed on the cheapest paper stock and, unless an effort at preservation is quickly made, they rapidly deteriorate. The library's Gazettes Microfilming Project attempts to record these materials on microfilm as they become available. The following titles serve merely as examples; in no case should it be assumed that the file is complete, as for the most part, they are not. But among those cited, the representation is substantial.
The London Gazette is complete from its beginning as the Oxford Gazette in 1665. The files of the Dublin Gazette-- continued by the Belfast Gazette and by the Iris oifigiuil-- and of the Edinburgh Gazette both commence about the turn of the century.
Continental European countries are well represented. The French Journal officiel commences in 1789; the Spanish Gaceta de Madrid, in 1808; the Italian Gazzetta ufficiale, in 1861; the German Reichs-Anzeiger, in 1875. Among smaller countries, the Netherlands Staats-Courant begins in 1813; the Belgian Moniteur Belge, in 1831; the Swiss Bundesblatt, in 1848; the Rumanian Monitorul oficial, in 1896. Russian, Greek, and Bulgarian gazettes are included. The smaller French and German districts and states are well represented.
Asiatic materials include the Gazette of India, which commences in 1912, and strong holdings for the individual Indian states. Among other Asian gazettes are the Hong Kong Government Gazette from 1909; the Straits Settlements Government Gazette from 1909 (continued by the Singapore Government Gazette from 1958); and the Federated Malay States Government Gazette from 1909 (continued by the Malaysia His Majesty's Government Gazette from 1963). Other titles include the Goa Boletim oficial from 1906 (continued by the Goa, Daman, and Diu Government Gazette; Boletim oficial from 1961), the Macao Boletim oficial from 1930, and the French Indo-China Journal officiel from 1889 (continued in part by the Viet Nam Công-Báo Viet-Nam Công-Hoa from 1955). China is represented by King Paon (in Chinese) from 1885 to 1899, and the Translation of the Peking Gazette (1872-99).
The library has always recognized the political importance of Africa. There is unusual strength in the gazettes of the former colonial governments of that continent. Although repeated attempts have been made to obtain complete files
The American continents are well covered. The Canadian Gazette commences in 1881; most of the provinces have excellent files. The Mexican official newspaper, under various titles, is more or less continuous from 1805; those of the Mexican states vary. South American republics have, in some instances, good representations at the national level (for example the Argentine Boletin oficial from 1899, and the Brazil Diário oficial from 1900) but relatively little for smaller political subdivisions.
This is another strong group. Among the longer sets United States directories and registers are substantially complete; those of the states are held in strength. Such directories and manuals as have been issued by cities are also present, as far as the library has been able to collect them--the Boston Municipal Register, from 1840; the Newark (N.J.) Manual, from 1872; and others.
For the rest of the world, a few outstanding titles issued by nations, provinces, and cities will perhaps be suggestive: Australia's Yearbook of Australia, from 1885; Belgium's Almanach royal officiel, from 1841; the Canadian Parliamentary Companion (later, Guide ), from 1867; the Netherland East Indies Regeering Almanak, from 1822; France's Almanach national (previously royal ), from 1708; Great Britain's Colonial List, from 1879, and the India Office's India List, from 1813; Jamaica's Handbook, from 1882; the Netherlands Jaarboekje, from 1833; Prague's Almanach hlavnìho mesta Prahy, from 1898; Sardinia's Calendario generale, from 1824-47; the Swedish Sveriges och Norriges Calender, from 1779. Though many of these files are incomplete, most of them are substantial and lack few numbers.
In the following description, as elsewhere in this Guide, specific titles are mentioned; they are intended to be suggestive of types of material present, rather than to emphasize the importance of those particular titles. Throughout the discussion the commencing date of the library's file is provided, seldom with any indication if the file is absolutely complete or whether it is current; files cited are generally very substantial, if not complete. Only original publications are taken into account. In many instances where these are lacking--particularly the early volumes --there are compilations, reprints, etc., which the library generally has; it would be incorrect to assume that the library does not have the legislative proceedings of any given country if the date noted in this description happens to be later than the initial volume.
This is one of the finest collections in the library, and detailed description is unnecessary. As a depository library for U.S. federal government publications since 1884, the library has received materials so distributed. The library also has been receiving the Readex Microprint edition (opaque microforms) of all nondepository items listed in the Monthly Catalog of U.S. Government Publications since 1953 and all depository items listed since 1956. The library is a depository library for the state publications of New York, California, and Washington. There is a strong representation of the publications of other states; the federal district; and the outlying territories and areas from the earliest periods of publication.
Rare materials in the Rare Book Division include documents published by the federal government through the first fourteen congresses, those of the thirteen original states through 1800, and those of territories to the date of admission as states. The collection of contemporaneously printed federal documents from 1789 to 1817, while not bibliographically complete, is nevertheless of major importance. There is also a notable group of documents published by the Confederate States of America and by the separate states of the Confederacy.
This is another extensive collection. The library's set of Parliamentary Papers for the years 1731 to 1800 (slightly incomplete for the earlier years) is one of a small number of sets in the United States.3 The files of Parliamentary Debates are complete. Publications common to former crown colonies-- Gazette, Bluebook, Legislative Council Minutes and Debates, and the various reports in collected or separate form--are a notable feature; the library's files of the "Bluebooks" usually commence about the turn of the century. Dominion publications, as well as those of their component states, and Debates are held in strength. Special mention may be given India and Pakistan, as the library has substantial runs of the administrative reports of the various states, under both English and native rule, and there are substantial files of the legislative proceedings of the states. Selections from the Records of the various Indic states is noteworthy.
These form an excellent representation. The library has made a particular effort to obtain the
This is not a large group; it is most notable for strong holdings of gazettes, mentioned in an earlier paragraph.
Although less systematic than those of other countries, the collections of legislative proceedings and reports from this area of the world are, on the whole, good. It has proved most difficult to secure publications from the countries to the south. A few of the longer files include the Mexican Diario, from 1793; the Argentine Diario de sesiones, from 1854; the Brazil Annaes, from 1849-50; the Chile Boletin, from 1866; the Paraguay Registro oficial, from 1869-75; and the Uruguay Diario, from 1830. The collections also include much material in reprint; thus, the Bolivian Redactor del H. Congreso nacional commences with 1825. The Schomburg Center Kurt Fisher collection contains strong holdings of Haitian documents, including presidential proclamations and numerous other printed and manuscript records, from the time of the French Revolution.
These constitute one of the unusual collections of the library, relating both to government and local history. Municipal documents are such a highly specialized type of material that any extended description of the content of this class would become a catalog. An outline of the present collecting policy in this field follows:
The present collecting policy for municipal documents varies in some respects from the policy as it has developed over the years. It should be noted that in 1941 the collecting policy for municipal documents called for the acquisition of materials from American and Canadian cities of 30,000 population or more, and from foreign cities of 200,000 or more. New York state municipal documents are unusually strong; those of New York City constitute a rich collection. Other than New York, the library's first effort has been to secure the "collected documents," though few cities outside the New England area now issue such publications. The proceedings of the council or similar legislative body, the ordinances, and the municipal gazette (if published) are sought. To name but a few files of proceedings of more important cities are those of Baltimore, from 1869; Boston, from 1853; Chicago, from 1870; Cleveland, from 1874; Indianapolis, from 1891; Philadelphia, from 1857; and St. Louis, from 1859.
The library's collection of American municipal charters is of unusual importance.4 County documents are collected in the fields of the library's interest issued by counties in New York State, New Jersey, Connecticut, and a few of the largest metropolitan areas across the nation. The supervisors' journals of New York state counties constitute a very strong feature. Although not actively
European municipalities are well represented, especially larger ones such as London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and Rome. There is a variation in the resources by country. German cities have long files of Verwaltungsberichte, Haushaltspläne, as well as some of the Verhandlungen of the local Rat. French municipalities are well represented. The older files of Italian cities are good, but recent material is often lacking. Swiss and Dutch series are strong. Outside Madrid, Spanish materials are weak; the Scandinavian holdings are irregular.