Guide to the Research Collections
|SECTION -- IV -- THE PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES|
|64 -- MILITARY AND NAVAL SCIENCE|
The collection of 43,700 volumes and numerous manuscripts on military art and science is strong. There is an excellent representation of regimental histories and personal narratives. A wide-ranging accumulation of official publications and a number of unofficial publications provides an adequate representation of current materials from most countries for the general reader. For research, however, the principal value of the collection is historical.
The General Research and Humanities Division collects comprehensively in this field. The Economic and Public Affairs Division assumes secondary collecting responsibility in the fields of jurisprudence, military law, court martial, military administration and registers, and United States federal and state government reports. The estimated growth of the collections is indicated by the following:
Perhaps the most significant gift in this field was the transfer by the Military Service Institution of its library of more than 8,000 pieces in 1912, with a later deposit in 1913 of 500 books and pamphlets including government documents, Civil War records, and many papers formerly owned by General John M. Schofield. The Parsons collection in the Science and Technology Research Center contains a number of items of military interest, particularly in connection with engineering.
Periodical holdings are comprehensive. The library has almost complete holdings on microfilm of Stars and Stripes and complete holdings of Yank in all editions;1 a complete file of the World War I edition of Stars and Stripes is in the Rare Book Division. Among publications concerning subjects as diverse as arms and armor, military collectors, and military engineering are Allgemeine Schweizerische Militaerzeitschrift (1865-), Army and Navy Journal (1863-), and Journal of the Royal Artillery (1858-); representative of earlier items is the Military and Naval Magazine of the United States (1833-36). There are numerous handbooks and manuals, with good American and British collections. Military laws, regulations, and decisions of courts martial are well represented, as are routine reports and other publications of war ministries, state militia departments, and similar administrative divisions. Associated with these materials are the rich collection of session laws in the Economic and Public Affairs Division, administrative reports from most countries of the world, and publications of international organizations such as the League of Nations and the United Nations.
Technical subjects of consequence include strong collections relating to defense, military tactics, firearms, artillery, and ballistics, with special features such as the World War I engineering materials in the Wilgus collection in the Manuscripts and Archives Division. The Science and Technology Research Center does not cover military science as such, but contains much material on aspects of the subject such as chemical warfare, nuclear warfare, and the military uses of science.
Materials in the historical classifications for all nations include special divisions for important wars in which are located not only historical works but also those dealing with particular phases of military art and science applicable to the war in question. Materials on military hospitals are composed principally of historical works, the field of medicine not being a collecting area for the library. The collections on war and peace consist of materials of varying importance on philosophical and ethical problems, and are noted in detail in chapter 18 of this Guide.
Published American army lists in the collection date from 1809 to the present, including the rare 1863 issue, suppressed because of serious errors in the text. English army lists are available from 1754, and there are substantial files from Austria, France, Prussia, Saxony, Switzerland, and other countries.
Regimental histories (both official and unofficial), personal accounts, and related materials concerned with military units form a significant and growing collection. Those for the United States number well over 2,000, with strong holdings for the Civil War and World Wars I and II. Unit histories for the United States Air Force are also held in strength.2
There are fine collections of monographs and periodicals relating to regiments from Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.3 A 1954 estimate indicated that more than 800 British regimental histories were held by the library. Some 150 regimental histories in the Slavonic Division are, for the most part, nineteenth-century Russian publications, many of them purchased from the library of the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich in 1931.
Military classics, such as the writings of Valturio and Vegetius, are present in editions dating back to the fifteenth century. A notable vellum copy of Valturio's De Re Militari
(1472) in the Spencer Collection is considered to be the second illustrated book printed in Italy; also in the Spencer Collection are Dürer's treatise on fortifications, Etliche underrich, zu befestigung der
Jacopo Mariano Taccola's "Da machinis" (ca. 1449) is one of the vellum manuscripts in the Spencer Collection. The Manuscripts and Archives Division's holdings are of considerable interest. Many diaries, orderly books, plans of maneuvers, correspondence, journals, contracts, regimental returns, muster and pay rolls, and the like relate to the American Revolution; included is material on Colonial, British, and German troops. Other items cover later periods of United States history; of interest are letter books, orderly books, and conscription records of the Confederate States during the Civil War. Papers of army officers include those of Robert Rogers, William Alexander (Lord Stirling), Henry Dearborn, Horatio Gates, Mordecai Gist, John Lamb, Daniel Morgan, and Baron Von Riedesel.
Within the extensive papers of Philip Schuyler and the Gansevoort family of Albany there are separate series of military correspondence and papers. Those of General Schuyler and General Peter Gansevoort relate to the command of important forces during the Revolution. Gansevoort's materials continue to show militia duties and campaigns until the War of 1812, while those of a grandson, Henry Sanford Gansevoort (1834-71), reflect his artillery and cavalry commands during the Civil War. In addition are the Civil War papers of Ezra Ayers Carman, Francis Vinton Greene, Robert E. Lee, and John Wolcott Phelps. Further eighteenth-and nineteenth-century manuscripts are in the Bancroft, Emmet, Ford, and Myers collections. Later periods covered include a group of World War I letters from military personnel.4
Drawings in the Spencer Collection and the Prints Division include representations of batteries and redoubts of the American Revolution by Archibald Robertson, and 138 original drawings made by the staff artists of Leslie's Weekly during the Civil War. Two fortification collections purchased in 1946 include 100 original watercolor plans (1690-1710) for forts and 140 manuscript plans (1710-65) of European battlefields and fortifications. Military materials in the Prints Division may be located through the name of the artist or printmaker; military portraits are found in sources as diverse as Goya's Los desastres de la guerra (1863) and Otto Dix's Der Krieg (1914).
The Butterfield collection in the Map Division is made up of maps used by General Daniel Butterfield during the Civil War. The group of seventy-one maps includes hand-drawn specimens and a number seized from the Confederate armies. In addition, the division has maps covering the American Revolutionary War in New York State, the Civil War, and both World Wars. There are English general staff maps for World War I in the Parsons collection of the Science and Technology Research Center.
The Rare Book Division holds thirty-nine decorations of honor which have been in the collections since 1912: the division is not adding to this collection. Among the decorations are the French Legion of Honor, the Russian Order of St. Vladimir, the Prussian Iron Cross, and 2 Napoleonic medals.
The collection of 29,200 volumes and numerous manuscripts relating to naval art and history is stronger in certain areas than that relating to military science. Naval history has been given particular consideration; as a result of the James Owen Proudfit Fund, many important and valuable works have been secured. Most areas in naval art and history are collected comprehensively, with the exception of government reports and publications and works on naval artillery and ordnance, torpedos, submarine vessels, and submarine warfare, where the coverage is representative. Naval log books and journals for vessels of the American, English, and French navies from the late seventeenth century to the modern period are in the Manuscripts and Archives Division, as are more than seventy letters, documents, and drawings of Robert Fulton relating to the submarine, the explosive mine, and the steam vessel as instruments of war.
The growth of the collections is indicated by the following table of estimated strength:
Periodical holdings are outstanding. There are excellent representations from many maritime nations, generally with complete files of important titles. These include not only journals, but the publications of societies and institutions, navy registers, and other materials. Among titles currently received are the United States Naval Institute Proceedings (1874-), Revista general de marina (1877-), and Naval Research Logistics Quarterly (1954-), as well as other more specialized periodicals. Official publications (reports, navigation directions, navy lists, and the like) are held in strength for many nations. Particularly noteworthy are the American and British navy lists; eighty volumes of the latter once belonged to the Duke of Clarence, later King William IV of England, whose annotations are present in some cases.5
A significant part of the holdings consists of personal accounts of the sea and sea voyages, shipwrecks, lifesaving and similar subjects. Included in the extensive collection of materials on pirates and piracy are two classics in the field: Exquemelin's De Americaensche Zee-roovers (1678), along with its 1684 English translation, Bucaniers of America, and Captain Charles Johnson's General History of the ... Pyrates (1724).
There are approximately 110 books on navigation published before 1800, including noted rarities such as Pedro de Medina's Arte de navegar (1545), with sixteenth-century translations of the work into Italian, French, Dutch, and other languages; and Martín Cortés's Breve compendio de la sphera y de la arte de navegar (1551) with 6 editions of the Richard Eden translation of the work into English dating from 1561 to 1615. These and similar works of the period gain added importance from their relation to the holdings for the Age of Discovery in the Americas, an
Shipbuilding and marine engineering, fields administered by the Science and Technology Research Center, are well covered both in current and historical works and in periodicals. The Ships Index File, now inactive, locates printed information on individual ships and on some ships' captains. A 33-volume scrapbook series of clippings contains pictures of ships of all ages, harbors and ports, and related topics.
Naval history, a strong subject for all countries, includes additional material on individual naval battles or engagements. Particular interest attaches to the battle of Lepanto: in 1958 the library purchased the Sir William Stirling-Max-well collection of 59 contemporaneous pamphlets and books celebrating this victory by the Italian and Spanish fleets over the Turks. The Rare Book Division seeks actively to augment the holdings, which now number about 70 pieces. A group of items on naval prizes includes material from England, France, and the Netherlands from the seventeenth and later centuries, including laws, ordinances, diplomatic correspondence, and the like, and material for the United States and Prussia dating from the eighteenth century. Naval biography is outstanding for all countries.
Many other areas of the library's collections enrich the resources in naval art and history. Classes of importance are history, geography, costume, and law (with strength in international law, although the library does not collect treatises on the subject). The public documents holdings of the Economic and Public Affairs Division provide a wealth of source material.
Ships' logs, journals, official reports, proceedings of courts of enquiry, correspondence, and other items in the Manuscripts and Archives Division form a considerable body of source material. The larger part of this archive deals with American vessels and personnel, but there are many items relating to the English navy, and some to the French and Dutch navies. The Proudfit Fund has been used to purchase official naval manuscripts such as log books and flag or signal books.
The earliest American item is a letter book of the Navy Board of the Eastern Department of Boston for the period from October 24, 1778 to October 29, 1779, containing copies of some 249 letters. The journal of James Inderwick, surgeon on the brig Argus, chronicles events during the War of 1812.6 The library also has the log book of the Argus during part of the year 1813 and another journal kept by William Clarke, surgeon's mate on the vessel during 1812 and 1813. Other logs dating from 1815 to 1919 include those of the USS Independence, Boxer, Lynx, Prometheus, Macedonian, .7 Guerriere, Boston, Potomac, Lexington, Congress, Kansas, and the prize schooner Patuxent.
For the Civil War period are the day books of all articles ordered and supplied at the U.S. Navy Yard in Washington from July 18, 1861, to November 30, 1868, the papers of Gideon Welles for the period 1825 to 1885, and similar materials. The letters of Percival Drayton, most of these written on shipboard during the period 1861-65, deal with the naval operations of the war.8 Among the papers of naval officers are those of Louis M. Goldsborough (1821-73), John Adolph Dahlgren (1829-67), David Conner (1842-47), and Thomas Turner (1868-70). The papers of Homer C. Blake (1840-69) and George C. Foulk (1884-87) contain not only material of United States naval interest but dispatches, letters, and reports of naval actions concerning Korea in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The manuscripts of William C. Church relate to his work during 1863-64 as founder, editor, and proprietor of The United States Army and Navy Journal. Narratives of voyages include that of Paul F. Taylor, on the USS Quincy, which carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Crimean Conference in 1945.
Early English naval documents in the Manuscripts and Archives Division include the log book (1691-93) of the Royal Sovereign under Vice Admiral Ralph Delavall, operating against the French. There are also the logs of HMS Temeraire (1762-63), Glory (1794), Isis (1805), and others spanning a period from 1805 to 1900. Supplementing these materials are treatises, statistics, and receipts of payment from the seventeenth century; and receipts of payment, journals, diaries, rosters, and orderly books from the eighteenth century. The division has the memoirs of Gordon Gallie Macdonald, a lieutenant in the British Navy, for the period 1745 to 1831; the records of cases in the New York Vice Admiralty Courts for the period 1753 to 1770; and letter books of Sir Herbert Sawyer (1810-15), Francis Stanfell (1812-31), and James Creighton (1813-19), among others.
French naval manuscripts include a journal kept aboard Le Jazon (1745-46) and log books of armed vessels engaged in the transportation of troops to the French colonies in the West Indies and French Guiana during the period 1761 to 1776. A bound manuscript volume in French describes French naval participation in the American Revolution and other matters.
Two manuscript volumes in Dutch refer to signal flags of the Netherlands navy during the eighteenth century; they are illustrated with colored drawings.